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When a project moves from development into the pre-production phase, everything is arranged that must be in place before the actual shoot or principle photography begins. In pre-production, casting is completed, crews are hired, costume designers get busy, and set designers start building. If the film will be shot on location, locations are scouted and contracted for the shoot. A schedule is prepared and the script is divided into scenes by location and casting requirements to make shooting as cost-efficient as possible.
To block out scenes for a shoot, storyboards are often produced that visually capture the essence of the scene’s action. A storyboard is a comic-book-like graphic frame with free-hand rendering of a scene. Storyboards can depict exchanges between characters or action sequences such as a car chase or explosion. They also depict the scene from the desired camera angle(s) and are exhibited at read throughs and/or otherwise distributed among necessary cast and crew.
Cast members must meet costume designers for fittings in the pre-production phase. If voice coaches are required, trainers, tutors or other types of character preparation, that will take place in this phase. Actors who need to lose or gain weight for a part have the pre-production phase to get in shape, physically and mentally.
The administrative structure is also put together in pre-production. Every film is run much like a miniature company with all of the usual departments required: payroll, accounting, budgeting, overseeing and so forth.
It is entirely possible for a film to be dropped during pre-production. One reason might be the loss of a principal cast member, or circumstances that prohibit completion of some other major aspect of the project. Once pre-production gives way to principal photography or the actual shoot, it’s much less common for the film to drop out of production. Financiers are already heavily invested by this point.
The road of movie production is a long process, starting with development, going into pre-production, production or principle photography, post-production, audience testing and finally distribution. Each movie runs its own gamut of trials and tribulations, setbacks and smooth sailing. The entire process can take anywhere from several months to several years, with the development process typically consuming the most time, however there are exceptions. Shooting schedules can be disrupted by casting difficulties, accidents on or off the set involving major cast members, or in the case of location shoots, uncooperative weather or other unforeseen problems. When a film finally makes it to the big screen, it represents a considerable accomplishment for all involved.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the key stages of pre-production in filmmaking?
Pre-production is a critical phase in filmmaking that involves several key stages. It starts with development, where the initial concept is fleshed out into a workable script. Following this, the project moves into the planning phase, which includes budgeting, scheduling, scouting locations, and designing sets. Casting is another vital stage, where actors are selected to bring the characters to life. Finally, pre-production wraps up with rehearsals and the technical preparations needed to ensure a smooth transition into the production phase.
How long does pre-production typically take for a feature film?
The duration of pre-production varies widely depending on the complexity and scale of the film. For a feature film, pre-production can last anywhere from a few months to a year or more. According to the American Film Market, smaller independent films might rush through pre-production in a few weeks, while major studio projects often allocate several months to this phase to meticulously plan every detail before cameras start rolling.
Why is pre-production considered so important in the filmmaking process?
Pre-production is often regarded as the blueprint phase of filmmaking. It sets the groundwork for everything that follows. This stage is crucial for ironing out any potential issues on paper before they become costly mistakes on set. It's where the creative vision is honed, logistical challenges are addressed, and the entire crew is aligned on the project's objectives. Effective pre-production can significantly influence the quality and efficiency of the subsequent production and post-production phases.
What role do producers and directors play during pre-production?
During pre-production, producers and directors have pivotal roles. Producers are primarily responsible for the business side, securing funding, overseeing the budget, and ensuring that the project stays on schedule. Directors, on the other hand, focus on the creative aspects. They work closely with the screenwriter to refine the script, collaborate with the casting director to choose the right actors, and lead the creative team in visualizing the film's look and feel, from storyboarding to set design.
Can pre-production affect the post-production process?
Absolutely, pre-production has a profound impact on post-production. Decisions made during pre-production, such as the script's clarity, the storyboard's precision, and the thoroughness of the shooting schedule, can streamline the editing process. A well-planned pre-production can minimize the need for expensive reshoots and ensure that the footage captured is cohesive and aligns with the film's vision, thereby facilitating a smoother and more cost-effective post-production phase.