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What Is the Difference between a Bassoon and Oboe?

The bassoon and oboe are both woodwind instruments, yet they differ in tone, pitch, and appearance. The bassoon offers a deep, resonant sound, while the oboe delivers a higher, piercing timbre. Visually, bassoons are longer with a distinctive curved metal tube, whereas oboes are straighter and more slender. Curious about their unique roles in an orchestra? Let's delve deeper into their musical nuances.
J.M. Densing
J.M. Densing

The bassoon and oboe are both double reed woodwind instruments, but they have several significant differences that distinguish them from one another. A few of the differences that are immediately apparent when looking at the two instruments include their size, shape, and placement of the mouthpiece. The bassoon and oboe also have different sounds, with the bassoon playing in a much lower register than the oboe. Although student versions of both instruments are often constructed of durable resin plastic, higher quality models for experienced musicians are made of differing types of wood. The keying systems are also very different between the two instruments, along with the way that they are held.

When examined side by side, several differences between the bassoon and oboe are immediately apparent. The general appearance of each instrument is distinctive. The bassoon is much larger than the oboe, and it's made of approximately 7 to 8 feet (appx. 2.13 to 2.44 meters) of tubing that's bent in an uneven U-shape. The shorter, narrower side is where the hooked mouthpiece is attached about halfway up the length of the instrument; the other end is much wider and extends beyond the mouthpiece. The oboe is constructed of a single, straight length of tubing that flares out in a slight bell shape at the bottom, and it has a mouthpiece and reed attached at the top.

Woman posing
Woman posing

Both the bassoon and oboe produce sound when the musician blows air into the double reed, causing vibrations that resonate inside the tubing. Each instrument has a specific sound and range. The bassoon is able to play in a very low register, with the lowest sound out of the woodwind family of instruments except for the larger contrabassoon. The oboe is able to play higher notes and its sound has been compared to that of a duck, with a very clear tone that is easy to distinguish among the other instruments in the orchestra. Both instruments are noted for their expressiveness.

Student versions of both instruments are usually made out of resin plastic because it is durable. A higher quality instrument is usually chosen by more experienced musicians. The bassoon and oboe are usually made of differing types of wood. The bassoon is often made of maple, although it can be constructed from other types of wood with a medium level of hardness. The oboe is most often made of a wood known as African Blackwood, or grenadilla.

Each instrument has a different keying system. The keys are used along with fingers to cover the holes in the tubing of the instrument to produce specific notes. The bassoon has fewer keys, while the oboe has a relatively large number with approximately 45 complex pieces of keywork.

The bassoon and oboe are each held differently as well. Due to its size, the bassoon is held to the side of the musician, often with added support such as a chair or neck strap. The musician is usually able to hold the oboe in front of of his or her body since it is much smaller.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the key differences in sound between a bassoon and an oboe?

The bassoon and oboe are both woodwind instruments, but they produce distinctly different sounds. The bassoon offers a deep, rich, and resonant tone that can range from warm and expressive to humorous and quirky. It is known for its versatility in playing both bass and tenor parts in orchestral settings. On the other hand, the oboe has a clear, penetrating, and sometimes nasal tone, with a notable ability to sustain high notes with vibrancy. Its sound is often associated with pastoral scenes and is frequently used to carry the melody due to its distinctive timbre.

How do the physical structures of a bassoon and oboe differ?

The bassoon is significantly larger than the oboe, with a length of about 4 feet and a distinctive U-shaped bend in its tubing, which doubles its length. It has a conical bore and uses a double reed attached to a metal tube called a bocal. The oboe, in contrast, is about half the size of a bassoon, with a straight body and a conical bore as well, but it has a narrower shape. Its double reed is directly inserted into the top of the instrument without a bocal. These structural differences contribute to their unique sounds and playing techniques.

What is the range of notes that a bassoon and an oboe can play?

The bassoon has a wide range, typically spanning over three octaves, from B♭1 to E♭5. This allows it to play both bass and tenor parts in orchestral compositions. The oboe, while having a slightly smaller range, can play from B♭3 to A6, which is over two and a half octaves. Its higher pitch register makes it well-suited for melodic lines and solos within an orchestra.

Are there different types of bassoons and oboes?

Yes, there are different types of both instruments. For the bassoon, there is the shorter Tenoroon and the larger Contrabassoon, which sounds an octave lower than the standard bassoon. The oboe family includes the Oboe d'Amore, which is pitched a minor third lower than the standard oboe, and the English Horn, or Cor Anglais, which is pitched a fifth lower. Each variant offers a unique timbre and range, expanding the expressive capabilities of the woodwind family.

What roles do the bassoon and oboe typically play in an orchestra?

In an orchestra, the bassoon often plays the role of the bass voice within the woodwind section, providing foundational support and occasionally taking on melodic or humorous solo passages. The oboe, with its distinctive and penetrating sound, frequently assumes the role of the lead voice in the woodwind section, often carrying the main melody or offering poignant solo moments. Both instruments are essential for adding color and depth to orchestral textures.

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Discussion Comments


At the behest of my band director, I switched from clarinet to oboe. It wasn't too bad, and I didn't mind the double reed too much. Turned out what he wanted was a bassoon player, and thought the oboe was a good transition instrument. The only problem was that I never got comfortable on the bassoon. I think I was always a little afraid of it, if that makes any sense.

In any case, playing the clarinet and oboe got me a band scholarship, so I can't complain. It paid for my college education, so I definitely encourage other musicians to try the unusual instruments. You never know who might need a bassoon player!


I'm taking issue with part of this article. A double or contrabassoon does have the U-shaped tubing, but the standard bassoon is straight and is about four or five feet long. My friend's daughter plays bassoon in her school's concert band, so I've seen her bassoon up close.

I've seen contrabassoons too, and they are very impressive-looking instruments. They also require a lot of air to play.

The main similarity between an oboe and a bassoon, in fact, is that they are both double reed instruments and so have that slightly squashed tone, unlike a clarinet, which has a round, sweeter tone.

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