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If you’ve seen the excitement of Flamenco dancing, then you have likely witnessed not only the skill of the performers’ bodies and especially feet, but also the handheld percussion instruments they use with flare to provide additional rhythm as a dance occurs. These instruments are called castanets, or palillos, and are essentially hand or finger percussion. Little is known about the origin of the instruments, though they currently are used more specifically in flamenco dancing, music, and in some orchestral music. They were thought to have been used in a more widespread fashion in the music of Ancient Rome, the Ottoman Empire, and in Moorish countries.
A single castanet looks like two small clamshells or chestnut shells. In fact the word castanet comes from the Spanish term castanuelas, which translates as "little chestnuts." They are made of wood or fiberglass, though the latter is a recent addition. A string or light rope, and sometimes a leather rope, hold the two shells together. A person playing them in a traditional manner usually has a pair of castanets, one set for each hand. In time to the music, or to provide syncopation, castanets are clicked together, with the fingers controlling the upper shell, which is clicked against the lower shell held in the palm.
Skilled players may be very quick with castanets, creating incredible rhythm counterpoint, either while dancing, as with Flamenco dance, or while accompanying music. You can also hear some castanets in orchestral music where they may be mounted, and played with sticks, but this sacrifices some of the sound value. You will hear their distinctive tone in several operas, including Carmen and Tannhäuser.
Traditionally, when castanets are played in a pair, they symbolically represent male and female, and each individual set has a specific male or female name. The male castanet is called macho, and is a little larger than its female counterpart, hembra. The differing size of the pair accounts for different pitch. Typically the hembra castanet is held in the right hand, and the macho in the left.
Castanets were in existence before zils, the metal finger cymbals used in music of the Ottoman Empire, and seen today in belly dancing. The principal is much the same though, but zils create a more metallic sound, given their material. The sound of wooden shells striking is more like two sticks being hit together, and in this sound they resemble many other instruments that utilize two sticks, many of them originating in Africa.
These percussion instruments are great fun to play, and though mastery can take many years, they’re also a terrific instrument for children. If you enjoy listening to flamenco music, Spanish inspired music, or bands like The Gypsy Kings, consider having some castanets at home for children to learn to play. The clicking sound they make is very satisfying; moreover, learning how to use them can help children learn to keep time and may improve younger children’s fine motor skills.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are castanets and where do they originate from?
Castanets are a percussion instrument traditionally associated with Spanish music, particularly Flamenco. They consist of two small wooden shells joined by a string and are played by clicking them together in the palm of the hand. Their origins can be traced back to ancient civilizations, with evidence of their use in Phoenician, Greek, and Roman cultures. The modern castanet, however, is deeply rooted in Spanish folk music and dance.
How are castanets played?
Castanets are played by holding one shell in each hand, with the string looped over the thumb and the shells resting on the palm. The player creates rhythm by clicking the shells together using various techniques. Skilled players can produce a wide range of sounds and rhythms, often synchronizing with the intricate beats of Flamenco music. The playing technique requires dexterity and coordination, making it a challenging yet rewarding instrument to master.
Are there different types of castanets?
Yes, there are several types of castanets, including those made for traditional Spanish music and those adapted for orchestral use. The two main types are the 'female' castanets, which produce a higher pitch, and the 'male' castanets, with a deeper tone. They can be made from various materials, such as hardwood, fiberglass, or plastic, each offering distinct sound qualities. Professional musicians often choose high-quality wooden castanets for their rich, resonant sound.
Can castanets be used in different music genres?
While castanets are synonymous with Flamenco and other Spanish music genres, their versatility allows them to be used in a variety of musical contexts. They have been incorporated into classical music, with composers like Georges Bizet and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky featuring them in their works. Additionally, castanets can be found in some Latin, folk, and even pop music, providing a distinctive rhythmic element that enhances the overall sound.
What is the cultural significance of castanets?
Castanets hold a significant place in Spanish culture, symbolizing the vibrancy and passion of Flamenco music and dance. They are not just musical instruments but also an integral part of the traditional attire of Flamenco dancers, contributing to the visual and auditory storytelling of the performance. The use of castanets has been passed down through generations, and they continue to be a celebrated aspect of Spanish heritage and identity.