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"Passaggio" is an Italian term used in classical singing to describe the transition between a singer's lower and upper register. Some singers and voice coaches characterize the lower register as the "chest voice" and the upper register as the "head voice." The passaggio is the series of notes that fall between the two ranges, and without training, the singer's voice might break, he or she might have difficulty holding notes or might be unable to form certain vowel sounds.
The lower register is where vocal cords are short and thick, and the resonance of a singer's voice is felt through the chest, which is why it is known as the "chest voice." This is a powerful range and is used when speaking normally. The upper register is known as the "head voice" because in this series of notes, the vocal cords are thinner and stretched, and the sound resonates in the cheekbones and teeth. Different sets of muscles control the vocal cords in each register.
Each singer will find their passaggio in a different range of notes. Both male and female singers encounter the same type of difficulty singing through the transition, but at different points on the scale, depending on gender and singing range. In general, the passaggio is found between B-flat and the F-sharp above, and it extends three to seven semitones. Some singers find that they have two areas of transition; the lower is called the primo passaggio, and the upper is called the secondo passaggio.
When singing in his or her passaggio, the vocalist will encounter a change in note tone and quality. There might be a sudden shift in vocal registration, from head to chest or vice versa. He or she might drop a note or have trouble enunciating. Some professional singers find it difficult to sing for any length of time in the transition area, which affect the songs that they can perform or the roles that they can play.
With training, it is possible for a singer to move smoothly through the entire passaggio range without a loss of tone quality, volume or clarity. Techniques include learning to control throat, jaw and breath placement. Practicing gliding up and down the registers allows a vocalist to spot the breaks and smooth over the difficult notes. Familiarity with the problem allows for more relaxed singing, which avoids the muscle tension that contributes to the difficulty in bridging the passaggio.
Another training method aims to strengthen the weaker register. Some singers naturally fall into their upper or lower registers, and the muscles that control the vocal cords in the other register are relatively undeveloped. Singing exercises strengthen the lesser-used muscles, so the upper and lower registers are more equal in strength, allowing the vocalist to successfully blend the sound between upper and lower in the passaggio range.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the definition of "passaggio" in vocal music?
"Passaggio" refers to the transition areas between vocal registers in a singer's voice. These are critical zones where the voice shifts from one register to another, such as from chest voice to head voice. Understanding and mastering the passaggio is essential for vocalists to achieve smooth transitions and maintain consistent vocal quality across their range.
How many passaggi does a typical singer have, and where are they located?
A typical classical singer has two main passaggi, often referred to as the "primo passaggio" and "secondo passaggio." The primo passaggio marks the transition from the chest voice to the middle voice, while the secondo passaggio is the shift from the middle voice to the head voice. The exact location of these passaggi varies among individuals but generally falls within certain pitch ranges for each voice type.
Why is training the passaggio important for singers?
Training the passaggio is crucial for singers because it allows for a seamless vocal production across different registers. By mastering these transition areas, singers can avoid breaks or cracks in their voice, achieve greater control, and expand their usable vocal range. This leads to more expressive and technically secure singing, which is especially important in genres that demand a wide range and dynamic control.
Can the passaggio points change over time or with training?
Yes, the passaggio points can change over time due to factors such as age, vocal development, and dedicated training. As singers mature and refine their technique, their vocal registers can become more integrated, potentially altering the location and quality of their passaggio. Regular vocal exercises designed to smooth out these transitions can lead to adjustments in how and where the voice shifts between registers.
Are there any exercises to help singers navigate their passaggio more effectively?
There are several vocal exercises designed to help singers navigate their passaggio more effectively. These include scales and arpeggios that gradually move through the passaggio zone, sirening (gliding smoothly on a single vowel sound through the vocal range), and messa di voce (gradually swelling and diminishing the volume on a single pitch). These exercises encourage consistent vocal production and help singers develop the muscle coordination needed to manage register transitions smoothly.