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A bass-baritone is a type of singer who are comfortable singing in the middle to low range of pitches that men produce. Normally, the term "bass-baritone" is associated with classical music and opera, but bass-baritone refers to the range and quality of the voice and therefore is applicable to any type of vocal music. Very broadly, the term also can refer to any instrument that plays in the same range as these singers.
Bass-baritones can be seen either as a low baritone or a high bass. They have baritone qualities to their voice, but can reach into deeper, true bass pitches when the musical repertoire requires it. A defining characteristic of this voice type, however, is that the bass-baritone loses some of his power and resonance in the lower part of his range. Even though some of the power in the lower range is sacrificed, the color available with this voice type is highly prized.
The designation of "bass-baritone" did not even truly exist until Richard Wagner specifically called for a high bass in roles for his operas. This means that many scores call for a bass or baritone, not a bass-baritone. It thus is often the discretion of the casting director that decides whether a bass-baritone can sing a role labeled for bass or baritone. The goal of the casting director in these instances is simply to ensure that the vocalist has a range that can handle the pitches present in the role with clarity, power and control.
When bass-baritones sing as members of ensembles, the part they sing is somewhat flexible. For example, in a four-part mixed voice choir with bass, tenor, alto and soprano parts, the bass-baritone sings with the basses, taking the upper pitch or pitches if the bass part divides. In a male trio, the bass-baritone usually sings the middle part. In a male quartet or all-male choir, he sings the third part, above the low basses but below the low tenors. Bass-baritones usually are quite accustomed to this chameleon-like activity, so much so that trained bass-baritones often automatically take the proper pitches in a divided-part score, changing pitches only where the director wants to improve the choir's overall harmonic balance and therefore assigns what to sing.
As with other voice types, bass-baritone singers can be classified broadly as either lyric or dramatic. Lyric means that the singer has a light quality to his voice, although he still can be powerful. Lyrics often possess slightly greater agility of voice due to the fact they tend to have a little less thickness to their vocal cords. Dramatic bass-baritones have a richer, fuller sound.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the vocal range of a bass-baritone?
A bass-baritone is a male singing voice that lies between the bass and the baritone voice types. The typical vocal range of a bass-baritone extends from around an A below low C (A2) to the G above middle C (G4). However, some bass-baritones may have a wider range, reaching down to F2 or up to A4. This voice type is known for its rich, dark timbre and is often associated with roles that require both depth and flexibility.
What are some characteristic roles for bass-baritones in opera?
Bass-baritones are often cast in roles that demand a commanding presence and a voice that can convey authority and complexity. Notable operatic roles for bass-baritones include Wotan in Wagner's "Der Ring des Nibelungen," the title role in Mozart's "Don Giovanni," and Scarpia in Puccini's "Tosca." These characters often require a singer who can deliver both the power of a bass and the lyrical qualities of a baritone.
How does a bass-baritone differ from a true bass?
A bass-baritone has a vocal range that sits between a true bass and a baritone, with a lighter, more flexible voice than a true bass. While a true bass typically has a range extending down to E2 or lower and is characterized by a deep, resonant quality, a bass-baritone's voice is slightly higher and can navigate quicker passages more easily. This allows bass-baritones to perform a broader variety of roles that require both depth and agility.
Can a bass-baritone sing baritone roles?
Yes, a bass-baritone can often sing baritone roles, especially those that lie on the lower end of the baritone spectrum. The versatility of the bass-baritone voice allows singers to adapt to a range of roles, although they may bring a unique depth and resonance to baritone parts that is distinct from singers who are pure baritones.
What training does a bass-baritone require?
Like all classical singers, bass-baritones require extensive training to develop their vocal technique, musicality, and interpretative skills. This typically involves years of vocal lessons focusing on breath control, resonance, and agility, as well as language and diction coaching for singing in various languages. Additionally, many bass-baritones study acting to enhance their stage presence and character portrayal, which is crucial for operatic performance.