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A watermark is an image which appears on fine papers or on some documents to prevent counterfeiting. The watermark is designed to appear only when the paper is held at a particular angle, or against a black background. Standard paper usually does not include a watermark, as making a watermark will drive the cost of the paper up. Fine art papers use watermarks to identify the manufacturer, and companies such as banks frequently use specially watermarked paper for security.
There are two types of watermarks: true watermarks and artificial watermarks. A true watermark is applied during the paper manufacturing process using a special tool called a dandy roll. The dandy roll is pressed against the paper pulp while it is drying, and marks on the dandy roll will transfer to the paper pulp, creating an image. This image is called a watermark because it is made while the paper pulp is still wet with water.
An artificial watermark is applied during the printing process. Artificial watermarks are made using specially formulated inks or varnishes which will only show up at certain angles or under certain conditions, such as black light. These watermarks are cheaper than true watermarks, and can be easily customized for individual uses. They are also easier to fake by skilled counterfeiters. Personal checks and official documents such as passports often use artificial watermarks.
For an example of a security watermark, hold a piece of currency to the light. As you turn the paper to change the viewing angle, a faint image will appear. Depending on the nationality and the denomination of the currency, the watermark will change: but you will note that it is difficult to fake. Usually currency uses true watermarks in combination with specialized engravings to minimize the risk of copying.
When applied to fine art papers, a watermark tells the consumer who manufactured the paper, assuring a certain quality. Usually a manufacturer's watermark is a stylized logo, although in some cases the watermark may include general information about the paper such as recycled content and name of the paper. Sometimes, fine art papers may use a watermark to create a unique pattern which covers the entire sheet of paper. Such so-called laid stock papers often have a fine grid of lines or another such ornamental pattern.
Frequently Asked Questions
What exactly is a watermark and why is it used?
A watermark is a recognizable image or pattern in paper or digital media that is used to identify the creator, prevent counterfeiting, and discourage unauthorized copying or use of the document or image. It's often a logo, stamp, or text that is either visible or hidden within the content, ensuring that the origin and ownership are clear without being overly intrusive. Watermarks are widely used by photographers, artists, and businesses to protect their intellectual property.
How does a digital watermark differ from a traditional paper watermark?
Traditional paper watermarks are created during the paper manufacturing process, often by variations in thickness or density, which are visible when held up to light. Digital watermarks, on the other hand, are embedded into digital media files and can be either visible, like a semi-transparent logo over an image, or invisible, encoded into the data of the file itself. Digital watermarks can also contain additional metadata and are designed to remain intact even after compression or format conversion.
Can watermarks be removed and how effective are they at deterring theft?
While watermarks can be a deterrent, they are not foolproof. Visible watermarks can sometimes be removed using photo editing software, though this may degrade the quality of the image or leave traces of alteration. Invisible digital watermarks are more challenging to remove and can be traced back to the source even if the image is cropped or altered. However, the effectiveness of watermarks largely depends on their design and implementation; a well-designed watermark can significantly reduce the risk of unauthorized use.
Are there any legal protections provided by using watermarks?
Watermarks themselves do not provide legal protection; however, they do serve as a visual claim of ownership which can be useful in legal disputes. They indicate that the creator is asserting their copyright over the material. In the event of unauthorized use, a watermark can support the owner's case when seeking legal recourse for copyright infringement. It's important to note that copyright protection is automatic upon creation of an original work, but a watermark can help prove ownership and unauthorized use.
How can I create a watermark for my own content?
To create a watermark for your content, you can use graphic design software like Adobe Photoshop or free online tools specifically designed for watermarking. The process typically involves designing a logo or text, adjusting its opacity to ensure it doesn't overpower the content, and then applying it to your images or documents. For video content, video editing software can be used to add a watermark that appears throughout the footage. Remember to balance visibility with subtlety to protect your work without detracting from the viewer's experience.