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Encaustic art is art which is made by melting wax and using it as a pigment medium. The result is a rich, vibrant, textural work of art which can be endlessly manipulated with an assortment of tools. While many people associate encaustic art with melting crayons as a young child, the art form is actually thousands of years old. Several museums and art galleries have examples of encaustic art from places like Ancient Egypt and medieval Europe, for people who would like to see historical examples of the art form.
The waxes used in encaustic art vary. Beeswax is the classic medium, although other types of wax can be used as well. Most encaustic artists use blocks of wax which have already been dyed, but it is also possible to purchase pure pigments for the purpose of coloring your own wax. Some companies also offer wax paints which are in a semi-liquid form, for artists who do not want to use melting irons.
The melted wax is daubed onto a sturdy backing and then spread as desired. It can be manipulated just like ordinary paint with the assistance of brushes and other tools, or it can be allowed to cool so that the wax can be carved. In either case, the texture of the finished work can be altered with the assistance of heat lamps and similar tools which will soften the wax, allowing artists to work and rework it until they are satisfied with the end product.
Wax painting can get quite messy, so most artists like to wear protective clothing and use barriers on their workbenches. In addition, molten wax art requires heated tools such as specialty irons, so artists need to work carefully to avoid burning themselves. A piece of molten wax can create a nasty burn, and some artists like to wear gloves and long sleeves for this very reason.
If you want to start exploring encaustic art, you can set yourself up with some very basic tools and acquire more as needed. To start, you will need blocks of wax designed for encaustic art, along with a sturdy heat proof canvas. Some companies manufacture special paper just for encaustic art, and your art store should have some available. You will also want to pick up an encaustic iron, and you may want to think about textural tools such as brushes and a stylus so that you can manipulate the wax as you lay it down.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is encaustic art and how is it created?
Encaustic art is a form of painting that involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid or paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are sometimes used. Artists can sculpt and shape the wax before it cools, and can also rework the wax by reheating it. The ancient Greeks practiced encaustic painting, and it has seen a resurgence in popularity among contemporary artists for its texture and luminosity.
What are the unique properties of encaustic paintings?
Encaustic paintings are known for their dimensional quality and rich texture. The wax can be built up in layers, carved, and manipulated to create a variety of effects. Unlike other painting mediums, encaustic has a luminous translucency and a unique surface that can be polished to a high gloss. It's also incredibly durable; encaustic paintings from the 1st century AD have survived in excellent condition, demonstrating the longevity of the medium.
Can encaustic art be created at home, and what materials are needed?
Creating encaustic art at home is possible, but it requires specific materials and tools. You'll need encaustic medium (a blend of beeswax and damar resin), pigments, a heated palette to melt the medium, brushes, and a heat source such as a heat gun or torch to fuse the layers. A ventilated workspace is also important due to the fumes produced when the wax is heated. Beginners should start with basic techniques before attempting more complex methods.
How do you maintain and preserve encaustic artwork?
Encaustic artwork requires minimal maintenance. It should be kept away from extreme heat to prevent melting and from freezing temperatures that can cause the wax to become brittle. Dust can be removed with a soft brush, and the surface can be buffed with a soft cloth to maintain its sheen. Encaustic art is moisture resistant and does not yellow or darken over time, making it a lasting choice for collectors.
Are there any famous encaustic artists or historical pieces one should know about?
One of the most famous historical encaustic works are the Fayum mummy portraits from Egypt, which date back to the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. In modern times, artists like Jasper Johns revitalized the technique with works like "Flag" (1954-55), which used encaustic to create rich textures. Diego Rivera also experimented with encaustic in his murals. These artists and their works demonstrate the versatility and enduring appeal of the medium.