Syncopation is a musical process that involves adding an unexpected element to the basic beat of a musical composition. Basically, the art of syncopation calls for developing a line of rhythm that is played off the main beat line, creating an effect that provides the listener with a sense of enjoying a beat within a beat. At times, the syncopation adds more beats, while at other times it delays or changes the sense of a particular beat in the line of rhythm.
This unique and catchy process is based on the idea of changing the emphasis on the bars or notes used in the composition. In most musical creations, the general beat in a 4/4 time will call for emphasis to be placed on the first and third beats in the bar. With syncopation, however, the emphasis is placed on the second and fourth beats. This approach does not essentially change the basic rhythm, but it does alter the final sound of the composition.
In other situations, syncopation may add an overlay to the existing beat by adding a secondary beat line. With this approach, the secondary beat line fills in the small gaps in between the beats of the main line, producing a sound that may be more aggressive and produce a more challenging beat that can be ideal for dancing.
Syncopation is found in many types of music, with jazz containing the most examples of the application of this type of musical technique. However, the continuing blend of musical styles means that many different forms of music include syncopation today. The approach can be found in country music, rock and roll, new age compositions, and some classical music compositions.
Syncopated beats can be part of the original composition, or may be added by a slight realignment of the main beat of a musical work. Modern performances of traditional classics from the blues, country, and rock and roll genres are updated and given a fresh presentation by the addition of syncopation to the arrangement.