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A carillon is a musical instrument which is made from a set of at least 23 bells, connected to pedals which can be manipulated with the hands and feet. Carillons can be found in many parts of Europe, especially in old churches and other sites of historical importance, and some universities around the world also maintain carillons. A variety of different types of music can be played on a carillon, with some composers producing pieces which are specifically designed for the carillon. When a carillon is in good condition and it is handled by a skilled carillonneur, it can create quite a pleasing range of sounds.
People have been making bells of various shapes and sizes for centuries. In addition to being used to create music, bells have also be used to send messages and warnings. By the 12th century CE, craftspeople were starting to tune bells, manipulating their size, weight, shape, and thickness to create uniform and pleasing sounds. By the 15th century, several bellmakers were successfully making tuned bells, although it took another 400 years to perfect the art of tuning bells.
Most carillons are made with bells case in bell bronze, a special metal alloy which is specifically designed for making bells. The bells are cast in molds which determine their rough shape and weight, and then the bells are refined on a lathe. A number of different notes and tones can be created with a single bell, depending on how it is struck; tuning refines these tones so that bells can be played in harmony together.
Playing a carillon is hard work. Smaller bells which produce higher notes are fairly easy to play, with levers which are manipulated by the hands or fists, although it takes prolonged practice to learn to exploit the range of tones a single bell can produce. Larger bells are extremely heavy, and it requires significant force to play them well. The array of levers and pedals can present quite a workout for a carillon player, and a slip of the body can create a very discordant and unpleasant noise. When a carillon functions well, it can be used to produce beautiful harmonies and arrays of notes in a wide range of musical compositions.
Several universities allow students to study carillon, using the school's own bells as a practice and teaching tool. Some musicians also have their own portable carillon sets, which tend to have a more limited range of octaves since deep, heavy bells are not very easy to move around. The greatest enemy of any carillon is pollution and the elements, which can throw bells out of tune.
Frequently Asked Questions
What exactly is a carillon?
A carillon is a musical instrument typically housed within a bell tower, consisting of at least 23 cast bronze, cup-shaped bells. These bells are played serially to produce a melody, or sounded together to form a chord. A carillon's keyboard, known as a clavier, allows a musician, called a carillonneur, to perform intricate music by striking the keys with their fists and pressing the pedals with their feet.
How does a carillon differ from other bell instruments?
Unlike a simple set of chimes or a bell tower that may only have a few bells, a carillon boasts a full chromatic scale, allowing for a wide range of musical expression. The number of bells in a carillon can vary greatly, with some of the largest containing over 70 bells. This extensive range differentiates it from other bell instruments by enabling the performance of complex compositions, similar to a piano or organ.
Where can one typically find a carillon?
Carillons are often found in the bell towers of churches, universities, and public buildings. They are particularly prevalent in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Northern France, reflecting the instrument's historical origins in the Low Countries during the 16th century. In the United States, there are over 180 carillons, with notable examples at institutions like the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Michigan.
Can anyone play a carillon, or does it require special training?
Playing a carillon requires specialized training due to its unique playing technique and the physical demands of managing the clavier and pedals. Aspiring carillonneurs often undertake formal study, which can include coursework in music theory, harmony, and carillon performance. Many carillonneurs start with a background in keyboard instruments and then adapt their skills to the carillon's distinctive interface.
Are there any famous carillons one should know about?
One of the most famous carillons is the Belfry of Bruges in Belgium, which has a history dating back to the medieval period. The Riverside Church Carillon in New York City is notable for being the largest tuned carillon bell in the world. Additionally, the World Carillon Federation provides a list of well-known carillons around the globe, celebrating the cultural significance and musical heritage of this unique instrument.