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The Paraguayan harp is a derivative of the harps used in Europe. It is a folk instrument on which players perform very differently than the traditional classical pedal or concert harp. It is best known throughout South America, but has followers and performers worldwide.
During the 15th to 18th centuries when the Jesuits were establishing missionaries in and colonizing South America, those who came to work and live in the colonies brought traditional European harps with them. These instruments played a major role in spreading the gospel to the Paraguayan people. The natives of Paraguay became experts of these instruments in their own right and put their own spin on harp making and playing.
Paraguayans who learned how to play and make harps understood that European harps had a major disadvantage when it came to overall design. European harps have a neck design that, due to the tension of the strings, causes the neck to roll to the left. European harps had to be heavier and sturdier to accommodate this tension, as well, making them harder to transport. Paraguayans solved this problem by creating a "split neck" where the strings came from the neck's center. A trademark of the Paraguayan harp is that it is much lighter than most European harps, usually made of cedar and pine and weighing only 12 to 16 pounds (5.44 - 7.25 kg) depending on whether the harp accommodates a lever system.
The Paraguayan harp normally has 36 strings, although some have 32, 38 or 40 strings. This provides a rough range of about five octaves. In terms of height, the harp usually stands about five feet (1.52 m). It does not have any foot pedals, which is another reason why Paraguayan harps are lightweight. Those with lever systems can open one or more levers to raise the pitch of one or more strings by one half step and thereby play in different keys with ease.
In regard to performance, a hallmark of Paraguayan harp playing is that the performer engages the strings with his fingernails. The melody often appears in octaves or is performed with the interval of a third or sixth, providing a characteristic rich flavor. Players also use tremolos, alternating back and forth from one pitch to another rapidly. In short, the Paraguayans treat the harp in much the same way they treat the guitar, even strumming. With a guitar-like approach to harp playing, Paraguayan harp music sparkles with the lively rhythms of South America and is far removed from the classical harp "angelic" stereotype.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is unique about the Paraguayan harp compared to other harps?
The Paraguayan harp is distinguished by its lightweight design and smaller size, which facilitates portability. Unlike the classical harp, it typically has 32 to 40 strings and lacks pedals, using levers for tuning instead. Its sound is bright and resonant, often described as bell-like, making it well-suited for the traditional music of Paraguay, such as polkas and guaranias. The Paraguayan harp's unique construction allows for a more percussive playing style, with players often rhythmically tapping the soundboard.
How is the Paraguayan harp typically played?
The Paraguayan harp is traditionally played while seated, with the instrument leaning back against the player's shoulder. Musicians pluck the strings with their fingertips, and unlike some other harp traditions, they often use both the flesh and nails to produce a distinctive sound. The playing technique involves intricate finger movements, allowing for rapid melodies and complex rhythms that are characteristic of Paraguayan music.
What is the historical significance of the Paraguayan harp?
The Paraguayan harp has a rich history, deeply rooted in the cultural heritage of Paraguay. It evolved from the European harps brought by Spanish colonists in the 16th century. Over time, local craftsmen adapted the design to suit the indigenous music styles, leading to the creation of the modern Paraguayan harp. This instrument has become a national symbol, playing a pivotal role in Paraguayan folklore and identity.
Can the Paraguayan harp be used in different music genres?
Yes, while the Paraguayan harp is synonymous with traditional Paraguayan music, its versatility allows it to adapt to various genres. Musicians have incorporated it into classical, folk, pop, and even jazz performances. Its unique sound and playing technique offer a fresh dimension to any musical composition, making it a favorite among experimental and cross-genre artists.
Where can one learn to play the Paraguayan harp?
Learning to play the Paraguayan harp can be pursued through music schools that offer folk or world music programs, private lessons with experienced harpists, or online tutorials and courses. In Paraguay itself, there are cultural centers dedicated to teaching the harp, and internationally, enthusiasts may find communities and instructors through music festivals, workshops, and harpist networks.