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The trombones—along with trumpets, horns, and tubas—make up the main groups of the brass instrument family. The name "trombone" means large trumpet, and that is how they were conceived.
The individual trombones that make up the group include the slide trombones — soprano trombone, the alto, tenor, bass, and contrabass trombones — and the valve trombone, which features valves in place of a slide. Of these, the alto, tenor, and bass trombone are used in the contemporary orchestra, with the tenor being the most often used in jazz.
Some slide trombones feature a valves or trigger that lowers the pitch and add to the range. This is a different situation than the valve trombone, which has no slide. The tenor trombone may have an F attachment, in which case, it may be referred to as a tenor-bass trombone, while the bass may have both an F and an E or D valve.
Trombones have either six or seven playing positions, specific placements of the slide, at each of which several pitches are available. In sixth or seventh position, depending on the instrument, the slide is completely out. In addition, a number of pitches can be created at multiple positions, while some can be played only at one position. A passage in which a player moves mainly between adjacent positions will be easier to play than one in which the player has to move between extreme positions.
The trombone may be used as a solo instrument or provide harmony. Famous trombone solos are included in:
- John Cage’s Solo for Sliding Trombone
- Leonard Bernstein’s Elegy for Mippy II
- Gustav Mahler’s Third Symphony
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Requiem
- Christopher Rouse’s Trombone Concerto
- Paul Creston’s Fantasy for Trombone
- Tommy Dorsey’s “I’m Getting Sentimental Over You”
- Alexandre Guilmant’s Morceau Symphonique
- Igor Stravinsky’s The Firebird
Famous players include Christian Lindbergh, Alan Ralph, Bill Watrous, Joseph Alessi, Tito Puente, Tommy Dorsey, Frank Rosolino, Arthur Pryor, Don Lusher, Nick Hudson, Denis Wick, J.J. Johnson, Ian Bousfield, and Glenn Miller. Other well-known players include Leroy Kenfield, August Mausebach, and Carl Hampe, Urbie Green, Kai Winding, Ronald Borror, Ralph Sauer, and Henry Charles Smith. The most famous reference to trombones may be the song “Seventy-Six Trombones” from the musical The Music Man by Meredith Wilson.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is a trombone and how is it classified among musical instruments?
A trombone is a brass instrument known for its distinctive slide mechanism, which allows the player to change pitch by extending or shortening the instrument's tubing. It is classified as a low brass instrument and is a vital part of orchestras, jazz bands, and brass ensembles. The trombone produces a rich, full sound that can range from powerful and majestic to smooth and mellow, making it versatile across various musical genres.
How does a trombone produce sound?
Sound is produced on a trombone when the player's lips vibrate against the mouthpiece, creating a buzzing sound. This vibration travels through the air column inside the trombone's tubing. By moving the slide, the player changes the length of the tubing, which alters the pitch. The combination of lip tension (embouchure) and slide position allows the trombone to cover a wide range of notes.
What are the different types of trombones?
There are several types of trombones, each with unique characteristics. The most common is the tenor trombone, which is a standard choice in many ensembles. The bass trombone has a larger bell and typically has one or two valves to reach lower notes. The alto trombone is pitched higher than the tenor, and the soprano trombone, which is less common, is even higher in pitch. The contrabass trombone is the largest and lowest-pitched trombone used in orchestral settings.
Can beginners learn to play the trombone, and what challenges might they face?
Beginners can certainly learn to play the trombone, but they may face challenges such as mastering the slide positions, developing a strong embouchure, and producing a consistent tone. It's important for beginners to receive proper instruction and practice regularly. With dedication, even novices can enjoy making music with the trombone and gradually improve their skills.
What role does the trombone play in different music genres?
The trombone plays diverse roles across various music genres. In classical music, it adds depth and power to orchestral pieces. In jazz, it's known for its expressive slides and improvisational flexibility. Trombones are also prominent in marching bands, providing a strong bass line. In pop and rock, they often contribute to the brass section, adding punch and brightness. Each genre showcases the trombone's adaptability and its ability to blend or stand out.