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Postmodern dance, like other postmodern art forms, attempts to reintroduce everyday culture into the perceived void created by the modern art movement. The modern dance movement endeavored to pare theatrical dance down to basic technique. Some experts define postmodern dance as a distinct dance movement that was started by the Judson Dance Theater and lasted only until the 1970s. Many theatrical dance pieces created after the 1970s can be viewed as postmodern by a wider definition.
The modern dance art form was pioneered by Isadora Duncan and matured under the influence of Ruth St. Denis, Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham, to name a few. Modern dance, viewed in the overall light of the modern art theory, sought to purify artistic expression by concentrating on technique and downplaying the influence of society and culture. Modern dance theory is still pervasive in the dance world.
If viewed alongside other postmodern art forms, including the visual arts and literature, postmodern dance is more than art movement restricted to the 1960s and 1970s. Postmodern dance relies on references to mass culture and everyday experience to create art,and many dance pieces fall into this category. Modern dance theory can be looked at as being "exclusive," while postmodern dance theory is "inclusive."
Many credit the Judson Dance Theater with developing postmodern dance. In 1962 a group of dancers rebelled against modern dance theory by performing different dance experiments at the Old Judson Church. They named themselves the Judson Dance Theater and theorized that everyday movement could be a form of dance. They also believed that anyone could be a dancer if they had the desire, and no formal training was necessary. The Judson Dance Theater broke up in 1964, but a second group headed up by other experimental dancers, most notably Twyla Tharp, was started and performed until the 1970s.
Twyla Tharp, a renowned choreographer, eventually moved on to become a more mainstream dancer, but her involvement with popular culture still places much of her work squarely into postmodernism’s broader definition. She used popular music with her choreography and created dances for movies such as Hair and Ragtime. Her work included ideas mined from mass culture, modern society and other art forms.
Some dancers still define themselves as being postmodern. For example, in 2011, Ananya Chatterjea, a self-proclaimed postmodern choreographer, performed a piece along with other dancers at the University of Minnesota. Borrowing on the legacy started by the Judson Dance Theatre, the dancers used everyday, random body movements in their piece. Response to Chatterjea’s choreography included anger, shock and curiosity. Some students, who were not dancers, also wanted to participate in the dance.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the definition of postmodern dance?
Postmodern dance is a genre of contemporary dance that emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the rigid structures and conventions of modern dance. It emphasizes process over product, meaning over form, and often incorporates everyday movements and non-traditional choreography. Postmodern dance is known for its use of improvisation, site-specific performances, and the integration of multimedia elements.
Who are some key figures in the development of postmodern dance?
Key figures in postmodern dance include choreographers and dancers such as Merce Cunningham, who explored the concept of chance in choreography, and Trisha Brown, known for her use of natural movement and improvisation. Yvonne Rainer and her "No Manifesto" also played a significant role in shaping the aesthetic by rejecting spectacle and virtuosity in favor of simplicity and task-based movement.
How does postmodern dance differ from modern dance?
While modern dance focuses on emotional expression and technical precision, postmodern dance often rejects the narrative and stylistic constraints of modern dance. Postmodern choreographers may utilize pedestrian movements, randomness, and an expanded range of performance spaces. The emphasis is on exploring the boundaries of what can be considered dance, rather than perfecting a specific technique or telling a story.
Can postmodern dance be performed in traditional theater settings?
Yes, postmodern dance can be performed in traditional theater settings, but it is not limited to such venues. Postmodern choreographers have been known to stage performances in a variety of spaces including lofts, outdoor environments, and even museums. The choice of venue often plays an integral role in the conceptual framework of the piece, challenging the audience's perceptions and expectations of dance performance.
What impact has postmodern dance had on the broader field of dance?
Postmodern dance has had a profound impact on the broader field of dance by expanding the definition of what can be considered dance and who can be a dancer. It has encouraged experimentation with movement, collaboration across disciplines, and the democratization of dance by including non-trained dancers in performances. This genre has paved the way for a multitude of contemporary dance practices that continue to evolve and influence performers and choreographers worldwide.