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Serigraphy, also known as silkscreening or screen-printing, is the process of producing an image, or serigraph, by pressing color though a fabric stencil comprised of porous and non-porous sections. The image may be produced onto a fabric, such as a t-shirt, or other material, such as ceramic, paper, or wood.
This form of printing is said to be based on the Japanese art of katazome, a form of stenciling with waterproof papers that was used in ancient Japan to copy an image. Some say, however, that the art originated in the Fiji Islands where banana leaves were used as stencils. The art as it is known today was patented in England in the early 1900s. The first commercial use of it in the United States occurred in 1914 when John Pilsworth developed a process to produce multiple multi-color prints from a single fabric screen, which was used to make multicolored signs and posters.
During World War I, serigraphy became the preferred method for printing flags and other patriotic banners because of its ability to create relatively identical and multi-layered images. More recently, it has been used by artists and manufacturers alike. In fact, most people probably own a serigraphed t-shirt and many have seen Andy Warhol's use of this technique in conjunction with photographic headshots of famous people, such as Marilyn Monroe.
Serigraphy is a relatively straightforward process. A piece of porous fabric is used as the screen. Originally, that porous fabric was silk, leading to the name silkscreen, but today, the more inexpensive alternatives of polyester or nylon are more commonly used. That porous fabric is tautly stretched across a wood or metal frame. Then, the negative areas of the image to be produced are blocked off on the screen with a non-porous material that can be paper, fabric, or plastic. This creates the stencil.
The screen, with the stencil in place, is then placed over the final product, such as paper or fabric. Ink, whether water- or oil-based, is spread evenly over the screen. A rubber squeegee is then used to press the ink through the porous areas and onto the paper or fabric below. If the design calls for multiple layers or colors, the ink from the first press is given time to dry, and the process is repeated with a different stencil or different ink color.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is serigraphy and how does it differ from other printing methods?
Serigraphy, also known as screen printing, is a printing technique that involves pushing ink through a stenciled mesh screen to create a printed design. It differs from other printing methods like lithography or digital printing in that it allows for the application of thicker layers of ink, resulting in more vibrant colors that are particularly durable. This method is also unique in its ability to print on a variety of materials, including textiles, ceramics, wood, paper, glass, and metal.
What materials are needed for serigraphy?
To perform serigraphy, you need a few key materials: a frame with a tightly stretched mesh screen, a squeegee for pushing the ink through the screen, ink or paint specifically formulated for screen printing, a stencil to create the desired image or pattern, and the substrate (the surface to be printed on). Additionally, a light-sensitive emulsion is used for photo-based screen printing processes to create more complex and detailed designs.
Can serigraphy be done at home, and what is the level of difficulty?
Serigraphy can indeed be done at home, and while it is accessible to beginners, it requires practice to master. The basic process involves creating a stencil, applying the emulsion, exposing the screen to light to harden the design, and then using the squeegee to press ink through the screen onto the substrate. Attention to detail and careful execution are essential for achieving high-quality results, making it a moderately challenging but rewarding artistic endeavor.
What are the environmental impacts of serigraphy?
Serigraphy can have environmental impacts due to the use of inks, solvents, and emulsions, which may contain chemicals that are harmful if not managed properly. However, advancements in eco-friendly screen printing practices, such as the use of water-based inks and the recycling of screens, are helping to reduce these impacts. Printers are encouraged to follow best practices for disposal and to use non-toxic materials whenever possible to minimize the ecological footprint of their work.
How long does a serigraphy print last, and how do you care for it?
Serigraphy prints are known for their durability and longevity, especially when high-quality inks and materials are used. A well-made serigraphy print can last for decades without significant fading or deterioration if properly cared for. To maintain a serigraphy print, it should be kept out of direct sunlight, framed under UV-protective glass, and stored in a stable, humidity-controlled environment. Gentle cleaning with a soft, dry cloth can help remove dust without damaging the print.