A slide trumpet is a trumpet with a sliding mechanism which is used to change the note produced by the instrument. This is different from an ordinary trumpet because it does not operate using valves and therefore allows more precise alterations in pitch. The slide trumpet is very similar to the soprano, or high-pitched, trombone. They were first developed in the Renaissance era, and actually were invented before the trombone was. Slide trumpets were the first type of trumpet used in Christian churches.
In terms of appearance, the slide trumpet is very similar to the trombone, featuring a large bell on one side and a sliding bar on the other. The mouthpiece is located on the back of the instrument, connected to the outer side of the sliding mechanism. Metallic tubing is used for the instrument’s construction, and the slide mechanism is roughly rectangular in shape, with a curved side at the front end. Horizontal bars connect the two long sides of the sliding mechanism towards the mouthpiece, and the front bar is moved by the player to adjust the pitch produced by the instrument.
Trumpets are members of the brass family of instruments, along with other instruments such as the tuba and the trombone. Sound is produced on a brass instrument by the player vibrating his or her lips into the mouthpiece and pushing air through the tubing. Trumpets produce notes that are pitched higher than on any other brass instrument. The slide trumpet is most similar in operation and pitch to a soprano trombone. Most brass instruments, including the slide trumpet, are in the key of Bb.
The inclusion of the slide mechanism on the slide trumpet increases the chromatic range of the instrument. Ordinary trumpets have valves, which are pressed in different combinations in order to produce different notes. This only allows for changing the pitch produced by the instrument in set increments. A slide allows the instrument to play more of the chromatic scale, which includes all of the notes. Therefore, a slide trumpet can produce more notes than an ordinary trumpet.
Historically, the slide trumpet has been traced to the Renaissance period, around the late 14th to the early 15th centuries. The original instruments were reputedly very difficult to play, and the slide only provided a very insignificant change in pitch — making it unsuitable for most songs. This historical information is hotly debated, however, because no instruments survive from the period.