The cornet is a brass instrument that has a more compact shape and somewhat mellower tone than the trumpet, but is otherwise quite similar. There are many different types of cornet music, as cornets, like other brass instruments, are used for performing a variety of musical styles. Cornet music has a particularly prominent role in brass bands — cornets tend to play the melodies and, in many cases, some solos in songs performed by brass ensembles. Cornets are also common in jazz bands and fanfare orchestras or "pep bands," though not always with the same prominence. Cornets are very similar to trumpets, so their roles in both solo and ensemble performances are often, but not always, interchangeable.
The most prominent use of cornet music tends to occur in brass bands. In such bands, cornets often provide the main melody as well as several of the important harmonies. The clear, piercing sound of the cornet coupled with its dynamic range makes cornet music fitting for such purposes. Other instruments in brass bands provide further harmonies and rhythm. Some brass bands use trumpets instead of cornets, but cornets are more popularly used for this purpose, particularly in British brass bands, in which trumpets are almost never used.
Cornet music also has an important role in concert bands, particularly in British concert bands. In the United States, trumpets have largely replaced cornets in concert bands and orchestras, but they are still commonly used elsewhere. Cornet music in concert bands is often more varied than in brass bands, though it still has an important role and is featured in many melodies and major harmonies. Woodwinds are also prominently featured in such bands, so cornets are often used to provide harmony and rhythm for woodwind instruments. Cornet solos are still quite common in concert arrangements.
Many other musical styles make use of or strongly feature cornet music as part of their regular arrangements. Cornets are, for instance, commonly used in jazz music, and many well-known jazz musicians are known for their use of the cornet. Modern jazz uses the trumpet more often than the cornet because the trumpet has a clearer tone and higher volume, but the cornet still sees wide use in jazz. Some forms of modern music have also adapted the cornet for their purposes. Cornet music can be heard in some forms of rock, for instance, particularly those with orchestral sections, and in some forms of punk music that feature brass instruments such as the trombone, trumpet, and cornet.