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The oboe is both a family of instruments and a single instrument and member of the double reed group of woodwinds. This group also includes bagpipes, baritone oboe, bassoon, contrabassoon, English horn in F, heckelphone, and oboe d’amore. The double reeds that are members of the family are as follows, arranged from lowest to highest.
- The baritone oboe, also called the bass oboe, is an octave lower than the regular oboe. English composer Gustav Holst used it in The Planets, but this version of the instrument is little used recently. Today, the heckelphone, an instrument about 4 feet (1.2 meters) long and also pitched an octave lower, is often substituted. The heckelphone was developed in response to Richard Wagner’s request when he visited the Heckel factory, a German bassoon manufacturer, in the late 19th century.
- The English horn or cor anglais is a fifth lower than the oboe.
- The oboe d’amore is a minor third lower.
- The regular oboe, a non-transposing instrument, played by an oboist.
The oboe was developed from its predecessor, a one-piece instrument called the shawm, by Frenchmen Jean Hotteterre and Michel Philidor in the 17th century. The shawm was a double-reed of the Medieval–Renaissance period. It made up part of the military band of the Saracens during the Crusades, along with trumpet and drums. The shawm came in six sizes, from sopranino to great bass. Larger shawms were known as bombardes. In early days of its use, the English called it an hautbois or hoboy, which suggests how the name developed.
There are three parts to an oboe: the upper joint, the lower joint, and the bell. Tenons are used to connect these parts. There are two main systems of construction: the French conservatoire system, which Frédéric Triébert developed in the late 19th century, and an English system referred to as the thumbplate system. There are also dual system oboes.
Oboes are used in orchestral as well as band ensembles. German composer Johann Sebastian Bach’s first two Brandenburg Concertos include this instrument. It is cast as the duck in Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf. Oboes are also included in jazz repertoire, and Charlie Parker’s Bird with Strings album features it.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is an oboe and how is it classified among musical instruments?
The oboe is a woodwind instrument with a distinctive, penetrating, and expressive sound. It is classified as a double-reed instrument, which means it produces sound by blowing air across two reeds that vibrate against each other. The oboe is often made of African blackwood and features a conical bore and a flared bell. It plays a crucial role in orchestras, chamber music, and as a solo instrument, known for its clear and lyrical tone.
What is the typical range of notes an oboe can play?
An oboe's range typically extends from the B flat below middle C to about a G above the treble clef, spanning over two and a half octaves. Advanced players can extend this range further through the use of alternate fingerings and techniques. The oboe's sweet and penetrating timbre allows it to be heard clearly over other instruments, making it ideal for playing melodies in orchestral settings.
How does the oboe's reed affect its sound?
The oboe's sound is greatly influenced by its double reed, which consists of two thin pieces of cane tied together. The reed's vibration is the source of the oboe's sound, and its quality, shape, and material significantly impact the tone and pitch. Oboists often make their own reeds to suit their playing style and desired sound, which can range from dark and mellow to bright and piercing. The craftsmanship involved in reed-making is a critical skill for oboists.
What role does the oboe typically play in an orchestra?
In an orchestra, the oboe is frequently featured as a solo instrument and plays a leading role in woodwind sections. Its clear and expressive voice is often used to carry the main melody or to provide harmony. Additionally, the oboe is known for its tuning note 'A', which is played before concerts to tune the orchestra, due to its stable pitch and penetrating sound that can be easily heard by all musicians.
How has the oboe evolved over time?
The oboe has a rich history, evolving from earlier instruments like the shawm. Its design has been refined over centuries, with key developments in the Baroque period and significant improvements in the 19th century, such as the addition of the key system by Theobald Boehm. Modern oboes have intricate key mechanisms that allow for greater technical facility and a more even tone across the instrument's range, making them more versatile and easier to play than their historical counterparts.